AVERE vs ESSERE in the Passato Prossimo – Live Interactive Italian lesson

By Manu Venditti | Advanced

Jan 16

AVERE vs ESSERE in the Passato Prossimo – Live Interactive Italian lesson

PASSATO PROSSIMO – is the main way in Italians to talk about past. It’s the common verb tense that we use to talk about events that started and ended in the past. It has two components the Auxiliary Verb and the Past Participle. Ex: HO COMPRATO (I have bought) so it is very similar tense in English. But there are times that we don’t say IO HO but we say IO SONO.

Example:
IO SONO ANDATO – in English it is “I have gone” but in Italian we say “I am gone”.

Verbs that use ESSERE.

ANDARE – VENIRE
PARTIRE – ARRIVARE
STARE – RESTARE
TORNARE – RITORNARE
NASCERE – MORIRE
DIVENTARE
PIACERE – PIACIUTO
RIMANERE

CONCEPT OF TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS

Transitive Verb – a verb where the action transfers from subject to an object. In Italian it’s not the sentence that tells you whether the verb is transitive or not, It’s the actual quality of the verb. It typically answer the question “Who/What”. Transitive Verb always use AVERE as the auxiliary.

Intransitive Verb – a verb that does not take a direct object, it only involves the subject but can indicate a complete action. It typically answer the question “How”. Intransitive Verbs always use ESSERE as the auxiliary.

Practice!

COMPRARE – To buy
BACIARE – To kiss
DIPINGERE – To paint
CADERE – To fall
CORRERE – To run
DORMIRE – To sleep
NUOTARE – To swim
CAMINARE – To walk

Confusing ones (with both possibilities) – depends on how you use them.

COMINCIARE – To start
FINIRE – To end

All Reflexive Verb in Italian use ESSERE as the auxiliary.

MI SONO SVEGLIATO – I woke up.
A CHE ORA TI SEI SVEGLIATA? – What time did you wake up?
CI SIAMO ARRABBIATI – We got angry.

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