Difference between ESSERE and STARE

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ESSERE vs STARE

What is the difference between ESSERE and STARE?

Sam asks: “When do I say SONO and when STO?

What's the difference between ESSERE (to stay) and STARE (to be) ?

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ESSERE (to be) – STARE (to stay)

Confusion:
Dialects
Similar Meanings

STANDARD ITALIAN = ENGLISH
I am..
I stay..
*exceptions apply!

▷ EXAMPLES

Sono Manu
I am Manu

Sono Italiano
“I am Italian”

Sono alto 170cm
I am 170cm tall

Sono stanco
I am tired

Sono sportivo
I am sporty

Sto a casa
Stay at home

Sto in albergo
Stay in the hotel

STARE = RESTARE (to remain) ALLOGGIARE (to lodge)

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STANDARD ITALIAN MILD DISTINCTION

ESSERE (permanent state) – STARE (temporary state)

English Examples:

Where are you staying in Rome?
Stay calm!
Stay happy!
Be happy!
Be good!
Stay still!

ITALIAN DIALECTS STRONG DISTINCTION

ESSERE (permanent state) STARE (temporary state)

Spanish SER / ESTAR
(Dialects Only) – the words are often interchangeable, but the usage is colloquial.

▷ Some Examples

Sono Manu
Sono italiano
Sto stanco (Standard:Sono stanco)
Sto arrabbiato (Standard:Sono arrabbiato)
Stai fuori

EXCEPTIONS: (when talking about health or emotional state)

▷ Some Examples

Come stai?
How are you?

Sto bene
I’m fine

Stare attento
pay attention

Stare zitto
be quiet/shut up

Stare buono
be good

AVERE + (“to be” in English)
FAME (hungry)
SETE (thirsty)
SONNO (sleepy)
PAURA (scared)
CALDO (hot)
FREDDO (cold)
RAGIONE / TORTO (right/wrong)

ESSERE & STARE – have the same Past Participle.

SONO STATO
I was / I have been
I stayed / I have
stayed

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